It is important to emphasize that the Vatican City State is not the same as the Holy See (the leadership of the Catholic Church), although the media usually correlates these terms. Besides the pope, the Vatican citizenship includes just over 500 people.
On this day in 1929 the Vatican City State was established by the signing of the Lateran Treaty between the Holy See and Italy. With these treaties, after many years, the issue of the Papal States which was occupied by the Kingdom of Italy back in the 19th century was finally resolved. With the Lateran treaties, the popes gained a precisely-defined independent and sovereign territory over which they ruled. All subsequent Italian governments abided by the Lateran treaties, and they are even included in the contemporary Italian Constitution.
The Vatican City State, which was created by the Lateran treaties is today by area and population the smallest country in the world. Namely, it has an area of 44 hectares and a population of around 800. Besides the pope, the Vatican citizenship includes just over 500 people. Most of them are actually members of the Holy See’s diplomatic missions (papal nuncios), resident in other countries. The rest of Vatican citizens are, among others, the cardinals who work within the institutions of the Roman Catholic Church, and 101 members of the famous Papal Swiss Guard.
The L’Osservatore Romano newspaper is issued in the Vatican City. Its top-level Internet domain ends on .va. Interestingly, the Vatican City is the only country in the world where ATMs have a Latin interface available. The Vatican anthem was composed by the famous musician Charles Gounod. It is important to emphasize that the Vatican City State is not the same as the Holy See (the leadership of the Catholic Church). For example, the official language of the Vatican City is Italian, while it is Latin in the Holy See.