Philip II. The Habsburgs, one of the most powerful kings to ever rule, was crowned King of Spain on January 16, 1556. Philip was crowned after the abdication of his even more powerful father, Emperor Charles V. (the imperial title was attributed to Karl’s brother Ferdinand of the Austrian Habsburg lineage). Philip still received the titles of King of England, France, Portugal, Ireland, Naples, Jerusalem and Chile during his reign.
This makes Philip II. possessed “an empire in which the sun never sets.” His estates spread from Europe through America, the Philippines, India, China and all the way to Africa. In Europe, he was the master of the whole Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal), southern Italy, Milan, part of Burgundy and the area of present-day Belgium and the Netherlands (admittedly, the Dutch later broke away under his rule).
The Philippines was named after King Philip II because it was called by Spanish sailors. Philip married the Queen of England, Mary Tudor, and thus became King of England and Ireland. As the English rulers at the time still claimed to be entitled to the French throne, Philip II. took the title and coat of arms of the French king. In doing so, it actually encompassed all Western European monarchies under its rule (whether real or nominal).
Philip II. he was a staunch Catholic believer and a fierce opponent of Protestantism, for which he gave broad powers to the Spanish Inquisition, made war against Protestants in the Netherlands, and invaded England, where Catholics were persecuted after the death of his wife. The march of his invincible army ended disastrously, after which Spain lost its dominance at sea.
He built a huge palace called Escorial, in which most of the premises were intended for monastic monks, and only a smaller one for the king and his court. In that palace Philip II. died in 1589.