- Historical event:
- 19 July 1824
- It is very interesting that Iturbide’s Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) did not include only today's Mexico, but also a much wider area – today’s U.S. states of California, Texas, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, and New Mexico, and also the territory of present-day states of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua and Costa Rica.
On this day in 1824, the first emperor of Mexico – Agustín de Iturbide – was executed.
During the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, he contributed to the liberation of the country from colonial rule and then, in the style of Napoleon Bonaparte, was declared the first Emperor of Mexico.
He was crowned in a cathedral in Mexico City, at a formal ceremony attended by the archbishop and several bishops. Just like Napoleon, Agustín placed the crown on his head himself.
It is very interesting that Iturbide’s Mexican Empire (Imperio Mexicano) did not include only today’s Mexico, but also a much wider area. In the north, it encompassed today’s federal U.S. states of California, Texas, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, Colorado, and New Mexico (the United States stretched only to the Mississippi River at that time).
In the south, Iturbide’s empire stretched all the way to Panama. Thus, it included the territory of present-day states of Guatemala, Honduras, El Salvador, Nicaragua, and Costa Rica.
It seems that Emperor Agustín de Iturbide had the support of the local Catholic clergy, but not of the Republicans. It is interesting that Iturbide came to power in Mexico on that same year (1821) when his role model Napoleon Bonaparte died in captivity on the island of St. Helena.
However, Iturbide’s rule did not last for long. The rebels, under General Santa Anna, prevailed, which led to the dissolution of the first Mexican Empire. Agustín de Iturbide went into exile in Europe and settled with his family in Livorno in Italy and later in Britain.
In July 1824, Iturbide returned to Mexico, but was soon arrested by the military authorities. He was sentenced to death and executed by firing squad on this day.